A battery pack is an enclosure consisting of one or several cells, safety component(s), and cell monitoring electronics. A pack used in smartphones typically consists of one cell, a protection circuitry, and a secondary safety component (e.g. fuse or PTC). The protection circuitry ensures that the cell voltage and current limits are not exceeded in any conditions.

A pack used in electric vehicles may consist of hundreds of cells, connected in series and also parallel to facilitate both high voltage and high current. A Battery Management System (BMS) is required to ensure that each cell block in a series connection stays within safe limits. In addition, BMS is used to balance the voltage level of each cell block in a series connection.

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